In , King of Bohemia Charles IV prescribed for the Jews of Prague a red flag with both David's shield and Solomon's seal , while the red flag with which the Jews met King Matthias of Hungary in the 15th century showed two pentagrams with two golden stars. In the first Hebrew prayer book, printed in Prague in , a large hexagram appears on the cover. In the colophon is written: "Each man beneath his flag according to the house of their fathers Following the Battle of Prague , the Jews of Prague were again granted a flag, in recognition in their contribution to the city's defense.
That flag showed a yellow hexagram on a red background, with a star placed in the center of the hexagram. The symbol became representative of the worldwide Zionist community, and later the broader Jewish community, after it was chosen to represent the First Zionist Congress in A year before the congress, Herzl had written in his Der Judenstaat :.
We have no flag, and we need one. If we desire to lead many men, we must raise a symbol above their heads. I would suggest a white flag, with seven golden stars. The white field symbolizes our pure new life; the stars are the seven golden hours of our working-day. For we shall march into the Promised Land carrying the badge of honor. David Wolffsohn — , a businessman prominent in the early Zionist movement, was aware that the nascent Zionist movement had no official flag, and that the design proposed by Theodor Herzl was gaining no significant support, wrote:.
Among many other problems that occupied me then was one that contained something of the essence of the Jewish problem. What flag would we hang in the Congress Hall? Then an idea struck me. We have a flag—and it is blue and white. The talith prayer shawl with which we wrap ourselves when we pray: that is our symbol. Let us take this Talith from its bag and unroll it before the eyes of Israel and the eyes of all nations. So I ordered a blue and white flag with the Shield of David painted upon it. That is how the national flag, that flew over Congress Hall, came into being. In the early 20th century, the symbol began to be used to express Jewish affiliations in sports.
Hakoah Vienna was a Jewish sports club founded in Vienna, Austria, in whose teams competed with the Star of David on the chest of their uniforms, and won the Austrian League soccer championship. In boxing, Benny "the Ghetto Wizard" Leonard who said he felt as though he was fighting for all Jews fought with a Star of David embroidered on his trunks in the s. World heavyweight boxing champion Max Baer fought with a Star of David on his trunks as well, notably, for the first time as he knocked out Nazi Germany hero Max Schmeling in ; Hitler never permitted Schmeling to fight a Jew again.
After the German invasion of Poland in , there initially were different local decrees forcing Jews to wear distinct signs e. If a Jew was found in public without the star, he could be severely punished. The requirement to wear the Star of David with the word Jude German for Jew was then extended to all Jews over the age of six in the Reich and in the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia by a decree issued on September 1, and signed by Reinhard Heydrich  and was gradually introduced in other Nazi-occupied areas.
Others, however, wore the Star of David as a symbol of defiance against Nazi antisemitism, as in the case of United States Army private Hal Baumgarten , who wore a Star of David emblazoned on his back during the invasion of Normandy. The flag of Israel , depicting a blue Star of David on a white background, between two horizontal blue stripes was adopted on October 28, , five months after the country's establishment. The origins of the flag's design date from the First Zionist Congress in ; the flag has subsequently been known as the "flag of Zion".
Many Modern Orthodox synagogues, and many synagogues of other Jewish movements, have the Israeli flag with the Star of David prominently displayed at the front of the synagogues near the Ark containing the Torah scrolls. According to the Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Magen David Adom was boycotted by the International Committee of the Red Cross, which refused to grant the organization membership because "it was [ Since , the Star of David has carried the dual significance of representing both the state of Israel, and Jewish identity in general.
In the United States especially, it continues to be used in the latter sense by a number of athletes. In baseball, Jewish major leaguer Gabe Kapler had a Star of David tattooed on his left calf in , with the words "strong-willed" and "strong-minded", major leaguer Mike "SuperJew" Epstein drew a Star of David on his baseball glove, and major leaguer Ron Blomberg had a Star of David emblazoned in the knob of his bat which is on display at the Baseball Hall of Fame. NBA basketball star Amar'e Stoudemire , who says he is spiritually and culturally Jewish,  had a Star of David tattoo put on his left hand in In boxing, Jewish light heavyweight world champion Mike "The Jewish Bomber" Rossman fought with a Star of David embroidered on his boxing trunks, and also has a blue Star of David tattoo on the outside of his right calf.
Other boxers fought with Stars of David embroidered on their trunks include world lightweight champion, world light heavyweight boxing champion Battling Levinsky , Barney Ross world champion as a lightweight, as a junior welterweight, and as a welterweight , world flyweight boxing champion Victor "Young" Peres , world bantamweight champion Alphonse Halimi , and more recently World Boxing Association super welterweight champion Yuri Foreman , light welterweight champion Cletus Seldin , and light middleweight Boyd Melson.
Maccabi clubs still use the Star of David in their emblems. The Jewish Encyclopedia cites a 12th-century Karaite document as the earliest Jewish literary source to mention a symbol called "Magen Dawid" without specifying its shape. The name 'Shield of David' was used by at least the 11th century as a title of the God of Israel , independent of the use of the symbol. The phrase occurs independently as a Divine title in the Siddur , the traditional Jewish prayer book, where it poetically refers to the Divine protection of ancient King David and the anticipated restoration of his dynastic house, perhaps based on Psalm 18, which is attributed to David, and in which God is compared to a shield v.
Seven names of angels precede the mezuzah : Michael, Gabriel, etc. Tetragrammaton protect you! And likewise the sign, called the "Shield of David", is placed beside the name of each angel. However, you find it difficult to stay with your projects long enough to actually finish them. Mentally you are imaginative and innovative. You can get quite creative when you channel yourself correctly.
You may be interested in the mystical realm or astrological topics. Your romantic partnerships usually occur unexpectedly and tend to finish in the same abrupt manner. Opening up to others is not easy for you due to your being unable to move past previous hurts, always fearful that the same will happen once more. You keep both your money and your feelings to yourself. Innately, you know that nothing comes for free and you would rather not pay the price unless it is truly worth having.
Rather than expressing your emotions to another, you will tend to purchase tokens of affection, as it seems to be easier for you to handle them rejecting your present than for them to reject you emotionally. You deeply desire to be loved but you are unable to be intimately close to another. Inside, you are insecure and do not believe you are worthy of being loved. It is only when you transform this way of thinking that your life will turn around for the better.
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You deserve as much love as anyone does, though this needs to come to you on your own. Try to let go of what happened in the past and move forward with your life. Your demeanour is usually stern and sombre and others may think you generally do not care about much. These observations are untrue as it is more so that you are being careful about who you reveal yourself to. You desire warmth and affection though it is very challenging for you. In order for you to receive affection, you will need to show it first.
Letting loose and having a good time without reservation is hard for you. Working diligently towards a practical result is something you can more readily comprehend, but emotions? They confuse you. It is uncommon that you engage in fun just for the sake of fun. Work tends to be fun for you which is baffling to others. Oddly enough, there is the occasional moment where you will distract yourself with something and leave the work to build up. You must find equilibrium between the serious side of life and enjoying yourself. You may seek out romantic partners that do not treat you the way they should.
If you find a way to appreciate the person you are, others will also. Safety and stability are valuable to you though you are unsure how to acquire them. You often worry about losing monetary assets or the people you care for. These feelings may become a self-fulfilling prophecy. Allow yourself to open up to others and forget past hurt. Look your problems right in the eye and deal with them; it is the one path to conquering them.
When faced with much difficulty you can become very pessimistic and down on your luck. Acting responsibly is important though life has put these challenges in place for you to grow in strength and wisdom. You are more likely than others to comprehend that there is more to life than being happy. However, this does not require that you must live in misery. Your loneliness stems from your unwillingness to accept that people do truly care for you. Again, it is likely your own insecurities colouring reality for you.
If you want to draw love towards you, then you must first act in a caring fashion. You are guarded about sharing your interests with others because you are fearful that they will reject you. In your relationships you may be mildly envious or try to possess your partner, as you tend to be so afraid of losing what is yours that you cling to it.
However, this tendency only works to distance your partner from you as they feel trapped, creating the exact thing that you were worried about. No amount of force can keep someone that does not wish to be kept. Feelings of love should be allowed to be expressed freely, without control being placed on them. Try to keep in mind that the challenges you are facing in life are only there to aid in your growth.
You insist on knowing the secrets of others though you will tend to keep your deepest emotions, wants, and intentions to yourself. Working out of the limelight suits you as you prefer to work alone, without anyone meddling in your business. You have a tendency towards envious, possessive behaviour that can become obsessive and you may treat others as objects to be controlled; you like things to go YOUR way. You crave to be acknowledged for your skills and wish to be respected as an expert in your field. You admire powerful leaders who exude a charismatic and magnetic presence and you try to emanate their persona.
It is important for you to learn to allow others to guide you as you can be stubborn, insisting that you do everything your way, however this only stifles your development. Fate tries to force you to learn these lessons by putting people in your life that will reflect your damaging behaviours towards you. The more you insist on sticking to your old ways, the more intense these lessons will become. You are extremely confident, believing that you are never wrong. Others feel intimidated by you and may attack you before you can do them any damage.
You have an obsession with death and the unknown. You enjoy creating though are never happy with the things you create, always reconstructing them or throwing them out entirely. Manipulation comes easily to you and you are quite skilled at asserting your control over others in a way where they are none the wiser.
You truly believe in yourself and your talents, feeling certain that you can handle whatever challenges you encounter in life. You know you have the ability to overcome whatever trouble lies ahead and will even conquer your own inner demons if need be. Inside, you are a force to be reckoned with and are exceptionally strong, persevering, and resourceful. Those who skirt their responsibilities, do not stand up for themselves, or evade their troubles will never gain your respect and you think very little of them.
Highly intuitive, you are perceptive in discovering the truth about the situation at hand. Try to be lenient with others, as not everyone can be as strong-willed as you. Allow people to do as they may, rather than trying to control their lives. Transform your own negative qualities before trying to change others. Do not abuse the power that you have or karma will see you pay for it in the end. Keep in mind that you get back what you put in.
Naturally you are full of energy and feel a need to be always active. Quickly disinterested, you require a good deal of mental stimulation to keep your mind busy, lending to your preference towards being a part of many endeavours all at once. You are self-sufficient, unique, inventive, and a revolutionary thinker who is always open to new ideas. In fact, finding fresh ways of doing things or progressive philosophies are a valuable part of life for you and you strive to inspire others to engage in these with you.
Your gut intuition is unusually strong and accurate. However, you require complete freedom to be able to use this intuition in whatever way feels right to you, reacting to situations without being hindered by other obligations. Careers that entail the same, monotonous work day in and day out are not for you and you would do best with work that uses your superb ability to adapt to changing circumstances and allows you some room for creativity. You would never abide by others demanding that you do something and telling you in what way you must execute your task.
It is important to you to discover things for yourself, in your own time. Your thinking does not follow the typical step-by-step process that most others adhere to. Instead, your thinking is more abstract and conclusions tend to just find their way into your mind seemingly from thin air, though this is just your intuition working its magic and providing you with unparalleled insight. Scientific and technological subject appeal to you and you are usually one of the first to try out new gadgets or concepts. Astrological topics and anything related to supernatural phenomena will also hold your attention.
You are an articulate communicator, in both the written and spoken word, which readily exchanges fresh and unconventional information with other people. You become easily interested and want to know a little bit about everything, but in order to truly be successful, you will need to discipline yourself. You may also need to watch out for becoming so engrossed and inflexible in your own views and beliefs that you demand others believe the same. Challenging situations will continue to surround you until you learn to be accepting and tolerant of others viewpoints.
It is alright to hold a strong belief system, as long as you do not punish people for being of a different mind-set. Be careful that you do not become involved in extreme demonstrations to prove your beliefs are correct, and rather develop a respect for individuality. You are self-reliant, inventive, and unrestrained with strong resolve and drive to get things done. These traits aid you greatly in your journey towards success. Be sure that you keep to realistic goals rather than taking risks on long-shots.
Not everyone can be as mentally quick as you are; therefore you need to practice patience with others who think at a slower speed. You are able to provide a substantial amount of knowledge to benefit others, though you must yield to working at their pace. You have a strongly held belief that you are entitled to your own opinions and viewpoints; it is only logical that the same privilege be bestowed to others.
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Let your intuition guide you in assisting others. There may be talent in teaching or speaking to the public as you put forth a great deal of emotional energy towards communicating your thoughts. You value education and try your best to gather as much data as you can, attempting to always be in the know when it comes to progressive advances.
People feel nurtured by you and you inspire them to believe in their abilities. You pick up on the subtleties and the unspoken words others have trouble communicating outright, allowing you to convey outwardly the things that will truly help people. Try to make it a habit of writing down your experiences and responses, as this can allow for some personal growth when you look back on them in the future.
There may be a skill in linguistics. Mentally you are logical and your thinking is not muddled by your feelings as your mind and emotional state work together harmoniously. People take comfort in this ability because they can be sure that you really do comprehend their situation.
You are able to use the written or spoken word to express your thoughts and the concepts you have created in your mind. All forms of communication appeal to you, as does travelling. You prefer your life to be full of changes and various new experiences so that your mind has something to contemplate and there is always something new to express or feel.
You may wish to try your hand as a writer due to this placement bestowing clarity of mind. Confident and driven, you have a tremendous amount of self-discipline and will do whatever it takes to succeed. You are aware of what it is that you wish to accomplish and the best way to go about it. Often the one leading a group, others rely on you to pave the path.
You are opinionated and direct in communicating your viewpoints, always ready to fight for the things you value. When you see a way to improve something, you work hard towards reconstruction. You have the will-power, the perseverance, and the dedication to achieve whatever you set your mind to. At times, you may become so focused on your work that you continue forward even when you are completely exhausted; tunnel-vision is likely when you have taken on a project. This tendency is detrimental to your physical health and you must find a way to pace yourself and make time for relaxation.
You have a strong character though you keep this low-key as you choose to keep out of the limelight. Preferring to be in the decision maker, you are often the one taking the lead in social situations and dislike anyone else trying to govern your life. However, it would do you well to develop tolerance for the way others do things and learn to be part of the team rather than acting director. Mystery appeals to you and you enjoy delving into the depths to discover all things hidden. If you channel your energies correctly, you may have an ability to heal others.
Investigation comes naturally to you and you access individuals and circumstances effectively and correctly; not much gets passed your keen observation. Shallow interactions are of no interest to you and you prefer deeper, more meaningful ways to use your time. Verbal conflict and confrontation are not enjoyable to you though you will engage in them when you feel they are required.
You are well able to keep yourself from projecting angry feelings outwardly, though when you happen to allow them to seep out, your emotions will burst forward intensely and others may need to stay out of your way until you cool down. They behave as actors in a production. What is happening on stage? The signs in astrology are the way that the actors behave on stage. How are they living their life, in their highest good or in their shadow? The signs describe in detail how the actor might react, behave or conduct themselves. In nature, a goat will strive to climb to the top of the hill and a Capricorn , being half goat, is no different.
They will try to achieve great heights on their own merit. Capricorns are conventional, coordinated, systematic, dutiful, trustworthy, sincere, effective, reasonable, controlled, commanding, driven, serious, and willing to wait as long as is necessary to attain their goals. However, they can also be anxious, negative, penalising, doubtful, inflexible, and close-minded learn about compatibility with Capricorn here. They do well in positions where they must utilise their excellent coordinating talents alongside their diligent nature and honourable work ethic. Coming up short on their responsibilities worries them.
Due to their reserved demeanour, they may seem the lone-wolf type.
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Capricorns can put up impenetrable walls in order to maintain their safety from harsh realities. You cannot keep them from pursuing their dreams. They will cling to their obligations and take work very seriously. Capricorns feel inadequate somehow and this compels them to work harder to achieve. They desire the respect of others and wish to be looked up to. Capricorns enjoy strategising; they will make sure to analyse a situation thoroughly before deciding on a course of action.
You can depend on them to come through during an emergency situation. They are also sound counsel, when needed. Capricorns are not usually hostile, though they can be intimidating if they feel threatened somehow. Often times a Capricorn will feel lonely and misunderstood, highly attuned to any slights directed their way. If Capricorns are in a bad place mentally or emotionally, they may become punishing or vengeful towards those who have wronged them. However, they are exceptionally faithful to those they are closest to.
Being esteemed, admired, and appreciated are vital to them. They feel most secure with a steady cash flow, as they are anxious to lose their material assets. Capricorns are unlikely to take risks in order to gain fortune, they would prefer to take the slow and steady course, investing in a sure bet. Not much will deter a Capricorn from their goal and they can muster enormous fortitude when they have decided on a course of action.
Instant gratification is not their style; they are aware that what is truly worth having will require many sacrifices. Working diligently and steadily can revitalise them. Capricorns are also likely to be frugal and enjoy forming collections of items precious or interesting to them. Wastefulness is not something they can abide by. Wasting of their time is part of this; they prefer to spend time in conversation only when they have something they wish to convey. Capricorns will need to curb their insecurities in order to tap into their artistic potential; self-doubt will limit them.
It is imperative that they develop confidence in their abilities and combat negative thinking patterns.
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Capricorns can accomplish anything if they only put their minds to it; where there is a will, there is a way and Capricorns definitely have a strong will! Capricorns are able to endure a great many challenges and delays in order to attain their objectives, which is important, as their road will be laden with them unfortunately. Going through these challenges causes them to learn discipline, fostering growth in enlightenment by releasing their focus on material aims. Working may prove to be relaxing to a Capricorn; often they will use this as a form of escape from daily life.
However, they can become workaholics if they are not careful. They do not really know how to unwind and are usually at their best when their lives are full of activities for them to do. Capricorns are considerate and independent. They may not possess the grand charisma that some of the other signs do but they are kind, diplomatic, and caring individuals. They are easily able to empathise with others due to their own difficult emotions. Romantically, Capricorns can be just as enamoured and affected as the rest of them, though they are usually unable to express those feelings outwardly.
They will take the time to get to know someone thoroughly before committing to them, preferring to take into consideration long-term goals and values. However, once they are committed they tend to remain so, as they feel they can work through any difficulty if they give it their all. You are warm, considerate, amiable, positive, balanced, and socially pleasing.
You are a wonderful companion to your mates and are gifted at making others feel cared for and at ease. While you are quite the people person, you are also very logical and rational, with good decision-making abilities, if only you could make up your mind. You enjoy artistic pursuits, especially that which may incorporate music; you may be interested in working as an entertainer. Social relationships are a necessity for you and you abhor any sort of conflict, especially emotionally.
What you long for is harmonious interactions where you feel things are evenly balanced. You dislike manual labour and prefer to stick to white-collar professions. At times you may sacrifice things that are important to you just to keep the harmony or you may become elusive, where others cannot seem to get an answer from you one way or another; indecision can become a major problem for you. Inwardly you may be at war with yourself although you do not let others see this.
Coming to a conclusion about something is challenging because you easily comprehend the different angles of each situation and wish to be just to each consideration. Be sure that you uphold your own values. You are able to see possibilities in a fantastic way; grand schemes for the future, fuelled by enthusiasm for idealistic endeavours. Always looking forward, you are more concerned with possibilities than the tried and true; abstract ideas are your forte.
You seek knowledge and are particularly fascinated with spirituality and political or religious topics. It may be challenging for you to complete your projects as you can be impractical and dislike attending to the mundane matters that are a necessary part of all developments; your focus tends to dwindle once you lose interest. Mentally you require a lot of independence to go your own way, though you often think along conventional paths.
You are likely to take risks and gamble at opportunities. Be mindful of speaking too quickly without thinking things through first, as this can cause you, and those you care for, undue stress. Developing a more diplomatic way of expressing yourself can be very beneficial to you as you can be tactless at times. You are likely to excel in business or any field where you are promoting due to your natural ability to influence others.
You are sharp, spontaneous, and adaptable. It is likely that you will be involved in more than one assignment, job, or school course at one time. Standing still is not for you as you would much rather travel the world and experience as much as you can, learning and improving yourself continuously.
In a romantic partner, you are most interested by someone who can increase your personal development in some way, especially your perception or awareness. You prefer your love interest to be out-going, adventurous, full-of-life, and open-minded as you would like to experience all that life has to offer with them, especially if these adventures involve travel. You enjoy immersing yourself in new cultural experiences that can broaden your horizons. It is imperative that you are able to relate to your significant other on a mental or spiritual level and you like to convey your goals, wishes, and values to them.
However, romanticism is not your style and your partner may find you a bit too laid-back or informal, which can instil doubt of your intentions towards them. Nevertheless, you are still apt to be idealistic about romantic feelings. There is a tendency towards feeling that the grass is always greener somewhere else and this may keep you from staying with a partner for the long haul; it will be helpful for your partner to keep up the excitement that is felt in the early stages of a relationship or to be able to help you expand your mind, as these will hold your interest.
You are compassionate, caring, giving, and a positive thinker with an inclination towards religion which you choose to convey through humanitarian or philanthropic efforts, together with your loved one. With incredible will-power and ability to focus on a goal completely, when you set your mind to something, you can accomplish anything. You have immense resolve and self-control and it is difficult to deter you when you have decided on a direction.
If you are interested in something or have an objective in mind, you can become rather stubborn and are fascinated with the idea to such an extent that you think of little else. However, these directives of yours are usually kept to yourself; you do not like to give away too much in regards to what schemes you may be thinking up. You are intuitive, observant, diligent, dedicated, focused, with a great magnetism and an iron will.
No one could ever say that you are shallow, as still waters run deep with you and an animalistic nature dwells inside.
It would be beneficial for you to develop self-control regarding your cravings in all forms, for when left unchecked these urgent yearnings can lead to destruction. In romantic endeavours, you must allow your partner freedom and space as you have a tendency towards treating your significant other as though they are an object that only you have rights to; when your possessive nature eventually surfaces, your partner may feel suffocated or frightened by the intensity. You have a knack for understanding the way people work, as well as an ability to accurately interpret how someone may respond to any given circumstance.
This can make it easy for you to use subtle tactics to achieve the outcome you desire; be mindful that you do not abuse this gift for your own personal benefit. You can be rather set on the way you want something to manifest, with a powerful internal assertiveness that people may feel but cannot quite vocalise. You have mastered the art of subtlety, both in expression and in perception, and others may have difficulty deciphering your true intentions. You prefer it this way as you do not like to take action overtly, but rather choose to remain hidden until you see the perfect moment to strike.
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Nonetheless, you are a powerful adversary when challenged. Be mindful of health issues regarding your colon. You are genuine, loyal, trustworthy, capable, and resourceful with an aptitude for technical or practical tasks. You may find that you encounter reservation, restraint, and a need to venture carefully when putting forth efforts to grow and better yourself.
There is an innate need to acquire material assets, though in the end this will not attribute to your joy or contentment. You may be prone to depression or isolating yourself from life and from other people. Independent and disciplined, you prefer being in positions of authority.
Wastefulness is not something you can abide by easily.